OLD PHILOSOPHY

SUMMER WORK: INSTRUCTIONS

Plato’s Five Dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito

Plato’s Five Dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito PACKET

GENERAL COURSE MATERIALS

Course Syllabus

Chronological Texts

DEBATES

UNIT 1: ARGUMENTATION AND FALLACIOUS REASONING

UNIT 2: KNOWLEDGE AND CERTAINTY

Text 1—“Innate Knowledge”: Plato, Meno

Text 2—“Knowledge versus Opinion”: Plato, Republic

Text 3—“Demonstrative Knowledge and its Starting-points”: Aristotle, Posterior Analytics

Text 4—“New Foundations for Knowledge”: Rene Descartes, Meditations

Text 5“The Senses as the Basis of Knowledge”: John Locke

Text 6—“Skepticism versus Human Nature”: David Hume

Text 7—“Experience and Understanding”: Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason

UNIT 3: BEING AND REALITY

Text 1—The Allegory of the Cave: Plato, Republic

Text 2—Individual Substance: Aristotle, Categories

Text 3—Supreme Being and Created Things: Rene; Descartes, Principles of Philosophy

Text 4—Qualities and Ideas: John Locke, Essay concerning Human Understanding

Text 5Substance, Life and Activity: Gottfried Leibniz, New System

Text 6—Nothing Outside the Mind: George Berkeley, Principles of Human Knowledge

Text 7—The Limits of Metaphysical Speculation: David Hume

Text 8—Metaphysics, Old and New: Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena

Text 9—Being and Involvement: Martin Heidegger, Being and Time

Text 10The End of Metaphysics?: Rudolf Carnap, The Elimination of Metaphysics

Text 11—The Problem of Ontology: W. V. O. Quine, On What There Is

Text 12—Why Is There Anything?: Derek Parfit, The Puzzle of Reality

UNIT 4: LANGUAGE AND MEANING

Text 1—The Meaning of Words: Plato, Cratylus

Text 2—Language and its Acquisition: Augustine, Confessions

Text 3—Thought, Language and its Components: William of Ockham, Writings on Logic

Text 4—Language, Reason and Animal Utterance: Rene Descartes

Text 5Abstract General Ideas: John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Text 6—Particular Ideas and General Meaning: George Berkeley

Text 7—Denotation versus Connotation: John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic

Text 8—Names and their Meaning: Gottlob Frege, Sense and Reference

Text 9—Definite Descriptions: Bertrand Russell, Introduction to Mathematical Logic

Text 10Non-descriptive Uses of Language: J. L. Austin, Performative Utterances

Text 11—Language, Meaning and Context: Paul Grice, Logic and Conversation

Text 12—How the Reference of Terms is Fixed: Saul Kripke, Naming and Necessity

UNIT 5: MIND AND BODY

Text 1—The Immortal Soul: Plato, Phaedo

Text 2—Soul and Body, Form and Matter: Aristotle, De Anima

Text 3—The Human Soul: Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae

Text 4—The Incorporeal Mind: Rene; Descartes, Meditations

Text 5The Identity of Mind and Body: Benedict Spinoza, Ethics

Text 6—Mind–Body Correlations: Nicolas Malebranche, Dialogues on Metaphysics

Text 7—Body and Mind as Manifestations of Will: Arthur Schopenhauer

Text 8—The Problem of Other Minds: John Stuart Mill

Text 9—The Hallmarks of Mental Phenomena: Franz Brentano

Text 10The Myth of the ‘Ghost in the Machine’: Gilbert Ryle, The Concept of Mind

Text 11—Mental States as Functional States: Hilary Putnam, Psychological Predicates

Text 12—The Subjective Dimension of Consciousness: Thomas Nagel

UNIT 6: FREEDOM

Text 1—Human Freedom and Divine Providence: Augustine of Hippo, The City of God

Text 2—Freedom to Do What We Want: Thomas Hobbes, Liberty, Necessity and Chance

Text 3—Absolute Determinism: Pierre Simon de Laplace

Text 4—Condemned to be Free: Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness

Text 5Determinism and Our Attitudes to Others: Peter Strawson

Text 6—Freedom and the Ability to Do Otherwise: Harry G. Frankfurt

UNIT 7: GOD AND RELIGION

Text 1—The Existence of God: Anselm of Canterbury, Proslogion

Text 2—The Five Proofs of God: Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae

Text 3—God and the Idea of Perfection: Rene; Descartes, Meditations

Text 4—The Wager: Blaise Pascal

Text 5The Problem of Evil: Gottfried Leibniz, Theodicy

Text 6—The Argument from Design: David Hume

Text 7—Against Miracles: David Hume, Enquiry concerning Human Understanding

Text 8—Faith and Subjectivity: Søren Kierkegaard, Concluding Unscientific Postscript

Text 9—Reason, Passion and the Religious Hypothesis: William James, The Will to Believe

Text 10The Meaning of Religious Language: John Wisdom, Gods

Text 11—God’s Commands as the Foundation for Morality: Robert M. Adams

Text 12—Against Evidentialism: Alvin Plantinga, Is Belief in God Properly Basic?

UNIT 8: SCIENCE AND METHOD

Text 1—Four Types of Explanation: Aristotle, Physics

Text 2—Experimental Methods and True Causes: Francis Bacon, Novum Organum

Text 3—Mathematical Science and the Control of Nature: Rene Descartes

Text 4—The Limits of Scientific Explanation: George Berkeley, On Motion

Text 5The Problem of Induction: David Hume

UNIT 9: MORALITY AND THE GOOD LIFE

Text 1—Morality and Happiness: Plato, Republic

Text 2—Ethical Virtue: Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics

Text 3—Virtue, Reason and the Passions: Benedict Spinoza, Ethics

Text 4—Human Feeling as the Source of Ethics: David Hume

Text 5Duty and Reason as the Ultimate Principle: Immanuel Kant

Text 6—Happiness as the Foundation of Morality: John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism

Text 7—Utility and Common-sense Morality: Henry Sidgwick

Text 8—Against Conventional Morality: Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil

UNIT 10: AUTHORITY AND THE STATE

Text 1—Our Obligation to Respect the Laws of the State: Plato, Crito

Text 2—The Just Ruler: Thomas Aquinas, On Princely Government

Text 3—Sovereignty and Security: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan

Text 4—Consent and Political Obligation: John Locke

Text 5Against Contractarianism: David Hume, Of the Original Contract

Text 6—Society and the Individual: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract

UNIT 11: BEAUTY AND ART

Text 1—Art and Imitation: Plato, Republic

Text 2—The Nature and Function of Dramatic Art: Aristotle, Poetics

Text 3—The Idea of Beauty: Francis Hutcheson, Inquiry concerning Beauty

Text 4—Aesthetic Appreciation: David Hume, Of the Standard of Taste

Text 5The Concept of the Beautiful: Immanuel Kant, Critique of Judgement

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